Rory’s class is studying the German theologican Martin Luther (1483-1546), who was a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. The teacher quotes from Luther’s tract To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520), advocating a break away from the Catholic church.
Rory is able to correctly identify both the author and the year from the quote, and get her answers in before Paris can. This shows that Paris is already challenging her to do better in class.
Incidentally it demonstrates that Paris’ paranoia about Rory has actually helped to create the situation she feared – if Paris had not been so antagonistic, the shy Rory would no doubt have remained quietly in the background on her first day at a new school.